Clone of Evaluating Inferential preferences II - Initial questionnaire

Ability to recognise valid arguments involving the expression "therefore (=>)" in logical expressions

Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions.

Evaluating Inferential preferences

Thank you for taking the time to answer these questions. The following questions are about your ability to recognise valid arguments involving the expression "therefore (=>)" in logical expressions. Thanks!

Various IQ tests have shown the connection between recognising valid inferences (arguments) and the level of ones intelligence; our aim here is to observe what people consider as "valid inference"

A valid argument is said to be impossible for its premise(s) to be true and its conclusion false; a valid argument is free of counterexamples.

For example two valid inferences (arguments): ⁃ Messi is 6 feet tall therefore (=>) Messi is 6 feet tall ⁃ Messi is an Argentinian therefore (=>) Messi is an Argentinian

Initial stage: 8 questions with pairs of inferences; our aim here is to acquaint you with the kind of arguments we are interested in; you can run through these questions if you like

Training stage:

Final stage: same kind of questions as Initial stage; please answer calmly.

18-24 years old 25-34 years old 35-44 years old 45-54 years old 55-64 years old 65-74 years old 75 years or older

4. Gender?

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Initial Stage. We are interested in your your capacity to distinguish between valid and not valid arguments using "therefore" (=>).

Note: in order to move rapidly through the questions below, you can choose to ignore the symbolic letters.

We are interested in your understanding of how arguments hang together using therefore (=>).

We will be glad to know how you ordinarily structure your arguments. Note: in order to move rapidly through the questions below, you can choose to ignore the symbolic letters.

IQ1. Which inference looks valid to you?

Obama tweeted yesterday ⇒ Obama tweeted yesterday

vs

Messi travelled to Argentina ⇒ Messi travelled to Argentina

i.e

A ⇒ A

vs

A ⇒ A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ2. Which inference looks valid to you?

Aristotle is smiling ⇒ Aristotle is smiling

vs

Albert Einstein had dinner ⇒ Joe Biden is in France

i.e

A ⇒ A

vs

A ⇒ B

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ3. Which inference looks valid to you?

The clock is brown or the grass is green => the clock is brown

vs

It will rain tomorrow or It will not rain tomorrow => It will rain tomorrow

i.e

A ∨ B ⇒ A

vs

A ∨ ¬A ⇒ A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ4. Which inference looks valid to you?

She is a friend and She is not a friend => 5 + 5 = 11

vs

2+2=4 => It is snowing or It is not snowing

i.e

A ⋀ ¬A ⇒ ⏊

vs

⏉ ⇒ A ∨ ¬A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ5. Which inference looks valid to you?

The correct spelling for “colour” is with a ‘u’ and The correct spelling for “colour” is without a ‘u’ => 5+5=11

vs

Galicia is in Spain and Galicia is in Spain => Galicia is in Spain

i.e

A ⋀ ¬A ⇒ ⏊

vs

A ⋀ A ⇒ A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ6. Which inference looks valid to you?

2+2=4 => I know your name or I do not know your name

vs

The boy is my brother or The boy is my brother => The boy is my brother

i.e

⏉⇒ A ∨ ¬A

vs

A ∨ A ⇒ A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ7. Which inference looks valid to you?

The chair is green or The chair is not green => The chair is green

vs

Aristotle is a philosopher and Aristotle is not a philosopher => 5+5=11

i.e

A ∨ ¬A ⇒ A

vs

A ⋀ ¬A ⇒ ⏊

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid

IQ8. Which inference looks valid to you?

Aristotle is a philosopher or Messi is a footballer => Aristotle is a philosopher

vs

2+2=4 => she is a friend or she is not a friend

i.e

A ∨ B ⇒ A

vs

⏉ ⇒ A ∨ ¬A

*

The top inference is clearly valid I lean towards the top inference Indifferent: none looks more valid than the other to me I lean towards the bottom inference The bottom inference is clearly valid